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Elevator basic knowledge

Number of views:237Release date:May 1st, 2020

1、Definitions

(1) Elevator: It is a fixed vertical transportation device used in high-rise buildings. It consists of a car that carries passengers and runs between floors along guide rails with a slope angle less than 15°.

(2) Car: It is the part that directly carries passengers, similar to a carriage. It is a closed box-like structure that becomes sealed after the doors are closed.

(3) Car door: The door of the elevator car, which automatically opens and closes as seen by passengers inside the car. It moves up and down with the car.

(4) Landing door (also known as hall door): The door located at the entrance of the elevator on each floor, which does not move with the elevator but opens and closes together with the car door.

(5) Call box (or call panel): It is located next to the landing door at the entrance of the elevator on each floor. It generally has two arrow-marked buttons for passengers to call the car to their floor.

(6) Car operating panel: Installed on the interior wall of the car, it consists of numerical buttons representing various floors, as well as door open/close buttons and emergency call buttons. It is mainly used by passengers inside the elevator to select their destination floor.

(7) Escalator: It is a continuously running inclined conveyor used to transport passengers. It visually resembles a moving staircase, equipped with moving handrails.

(8) Moving walkway: It is a continuously running pathway that resembles a flattened escalator. It is generally used for transporting passengers or passengers with carrying items on horizontal or inclined surfaces with an angle not exceeding 12°.

2、Classification

(1) Passenger elevator: Used for transporting passengers in places such as office buildings, hotels, etc.

(2) Bed elevator: Used for transporting beds (with patients) and medical equipment. It is mainly installed in hospitals. Its characteristics include a suitable carrying capacity and car area to accommodate beds, oxygen cylinders, intravenous stands, and other rescue equipment.

(3) Residential elevator: Used in residential buildings for the convenience of residents. The design of the car takes into consideration not only the transportation of people but also the ability to transport furniture, appliances, stretchers, or wheelchairs.

(4) Sightseeing elevator: Primarily installed in hotels, shopping malls, and high-rise office buildings. It has one or more walls made of transparent materials, allowing passengers to enjoy the scenery outside the car while riding.

3、Basic Knowledge of Riding Elevators

3.1 Riding Elevators Normally

Currently, passenger elevators are computer-controlled intelligent and automated devices that do not require specialized personnel to operate or drive. Ordinary passengers only need to follow the following procedures to ride and operate the elevator.

(1) At the entrance of the elevator on the floor where you want to ride, press the upward or downward arrow button according to whether you want to go up or down. As long as the light on the button is on, it means that your call has been recorded, and you just need to wait for the elevator to arrive.

(2) After the elevator arrives and the doors open, let the passengers inside the car exit first, and then the person who called for the elevator can enter the elevator car. Once inside the car, press the corresponding number button on the control panel according to the floor you want to reach. Similarly, if the button light is on, it means that your selected floor has been recorded. There is no need to do anything else at this time. Just wait for the elevator to arrive and stop at your destination floor.

(3) After the elevator arrives at your destination floor, the doors will open automatically. Then, walk out of the elevator in order, thus ending the process of riding the elevator.

3.2 Etiquette for Riding Elevators

(1) Calling the Elevator: Press the call button on the call box according to whether you want to go up or down. Only press the upward arrow button for going up and the downward arrow button for going down. Do not press both buttons, as it may slow down the elevator. The call button only needs to be pressed once. As long as the button light is on, there is no need to press it again. Pressing the button multiple times will not speed up the elevator and may even damage the button. Also, do not tap the button or the floor door panel just because you have to wait a little longer.

(2) Entering the Elevator: When the called elevator arrives at your floor, there will be lights, numbers, or sound prompts. Wait to enter the elevator based on these prompts. When the elevator arrives and the doors open, enter the elevator in order and select your destination floor button on the control panel inside the car. If the elevator doors close while you are entering, do not worry because every elevator door has a door-closing detection device. When it detects passengers entering or exiting, the doors will automatically reopen. Even if the doors are closing and the safety contact plate detects slight impact from a person’s body, there is no need to worry as it will not cause any harm. Note: Passengers, especially children, should not linger and play near the elevator doors. When the elevator car is full, do not forcefully enter the car, as it will trigger an overload alarm and prevent the elevator from starting.

(3) During Elevator Travel: Passengers should stand relaxed and not try to pry the doors open. If the doors are pried open, the elevator will emergency brake, affecting normal operation.

(4) Exiting the Elevator: When the elevator arrives at your destination floor and stops, wait for the doors to open automatically before walking out of the elevator.

3.3 Riding Escalators Correctly

Escalators and moving walkways are continuously running transport devices. When riding escalators, children should be accompanied by adults, and infants should be carried by adults. Do not hesitate when entering or exiting an escalator. Generally, there are square-shaped safety warning lines on the steps where people stand. When stepping on the escalator, do not step on the lines, which means do not step on the joints between two steps. Otherwise, when the escalator enters the inclined section, people may lose balance and fall. For those riding escalators normally, stand on the right side and hold onto the right-hand handrail. When reaching the exit of the escalator, there is no need to be anxious; just step off smoothly.

3.4 Etiquette for Riding Escalators

(1) Children should not linger and play near the entrances and exits of escalators.

(2) Do not climb or sit on the handrails of escalators.

(3) Do not use your hands to scrape the lower part of the handrails.

(4) Do not bend over and insert your hand into the comb plate at the entrance and exit of the steps when the escalator is in motion.

(5) Do not throw hard objects such as fruit pits or stones on the steps, and do not insert sharp objects such as umbrella tips into the gaps around the steps or into the comb plate.

(6) Carry personal belongings and luggage by hand.

4、Dealing with Emergencies When Riding Elevators

4.1 Elevator Doors Cannot Close

If the elevator doors cannot close automatically or even pressing the door-close button does not work, passengers should immediately exit the car and switch to another elevator or use the stairs. If possible, report the issue to the elevator’s maintenance department.

4.2 Being Trapped Inside the Elevator

If passengers are trapped inside the elevator and the car is unable to start or open the doors, they should remain calm and avoid taking any hasty actions such as forcing the doors or attempting to climb out through the ceiling. The correct course of action is as follows:

(1) Continuously press the alarm button on the control panel inside the elevator. This will activate the elevator alarm bell and alert people outside the car that someone is trapped inside. Immediate assistance from professional maintenance personnel will be sought.

(2) Pick up the telephone device on the control panel inside the elevator and follow the instructions provided to make an emergency call for help. Alternatively, press the telephone button on the control panel to request assistance from outside. Elevator phones are currently connected to the machine room and the control room, ensuring that someone will answer the call.

(3) Those trapped inside the elevator should wait for professional personnel to come and rescue them. When the rescue team arrives, it is important to communicate with them through the telephone or by shouting and to follow their instructions and cooperate with their actions in order to ensure everyone’s safety.

Dealing with Emergencies while Riding an Escalator

At the lower part of the entrances/exits of the escalator, there are two red buttons labeled “Stop.” In case of emergencies such as someone falling or getting their fingers or shoes caught, the people positioned at both ends of the escalator should be called upon immediately to press the “Stop” button, which will halt the escalator right away. Duty personnel or other passengers located at the ends of the escalator should also press the “Stop” button promptly if they notice an emergency situation in order to prevent further harm.

Elevator Management

According to the Regulations on Quality Supervision and Safety Inspection of Special Equipment issued by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection, and Quarantine of China in 2001, “special equipment” includes elevators, lifting machinery, motor vehicles within factories, passenger ropeways, amusement machines and rides, explosion-proof electrical equipment, etc. The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine is responsible for the nationwide quality supervision and safety inspection of special equipment, while the local quality and technical supervision administrative department is in charge of the quality supervision and safety inspection of special equipment within its jurisdiction. The special equipment safety inspection institutions of various levels of quality and technical supervision administrative departments should play the role of industry departments and social intermediaries when implementing the quality supervision and safety inspection of special equipment.

Elevators are products subject to production permit management and are uniformly implemented with a production permit system by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine.